How to tell if a wheel is forged or cast?

Time: November 08, 2021

The more beautiful the aluminum wheels are, the thinner the spokes are, and the more mysterious the technology is. In the market, high-end cars are generally equipped with novel patterns, and the spokes are simple and delicate, which is very dazzling. Is this the trend? Trend and fashion are pushing the spokes of aluminum alloy wheels to become thinner and more mysterious. What kind of technology can push forward? What kind of limit can "mysterious" reach? 1. What is the ultimate production process for aluminum alloy wheels? There are two production processes for aluminum alloy wheels, one is casting and the other is forging. Compared with the forged rim, the metallographic structure of the former is broken grain and forged structure, and the latter is dendritic grain and as-cast structure. In terms of single mechanical performance indicators, the general increase of forging is 30% - 50%, and the individual indicators are several times higher. In the international market, the price of forged wheels can be twice as high as that of cast wheels. There is no suspense about the production technology limit of aluminum alloy wheels, it can only be forged. 2. How many production processes are there for forged wheels? One is "solid forging". For truck aluminum wheels with simple structure, we can produce them by solid forging process. The second is "casting first and then forging". For more and more exquisite car and motorcycle wheels, it is difficult to produce a single solid forging. This requires the use of "casting first and then forging", first using traditional processes such as low-pressure casting, gravity casting, metal mold casting and other processes to produce basic shapes of blanks, and then changing to a forging machine for precision forging. Most of the wheels with very complex structure and beautiful appearance can be produced by this process. The third is "continuous casting and forging". The "continuous casting and forging" process can produce forged wheels with more complex structure and more exquisite patterns than "first casting and then forging". The comprehensive mechanical performance is one grade higher than that of the cast rim, and the spokes will be more concise and finer, and more beautiful like fairy bones. 3. Status of "Continuous Casting and Forging" Process and Equipment of Aluminum Alloy Wheels "Continuous Casting and Forging" process also has many manifestations. For the special production of blanks with a specific structure, a special machine can be developed. The most advanced aluminum alloy wheel "continuous casting and forging" equipment is born out of the "extrusion die-casting die forging machine", and is made into a special machine according to the characteristics of the wheel. This kind of aluminum alloy wheel "continuous casting and forging" special machine, the name can be called "opposite three forging pressure low pressure casting liquid die forging wheel rim machine". The equipment is equipped with three large-tonnage die forging cylinders. After the low-pressure filling of the wheel rim blank casting is completed, the forced die forging is directly performed, and the "rim", "spoke" and "rim" of the wheel rim are independently forged. Make the rim blank reach the grain of the forged structure. The mechanical strength is increased by more than 20%, the impact resistance is increased by 200%-500%, and the surface finish of the wheel rim can reach the highest level of 7-8, which is comparable to the mirror reflection effect produced by machining. 4. Continuous casting and continuous forging of magnesium alloy forging wheels The production equipment for magnesium alloy forging wheels is the same as the production equipment for aluminum alloy forging wheels. The only difference is that the smelting and pouring of magnesium alloy soup needs to be protected. The forging process is the same for both. To cast the aluminum ring, a sand mold is first created by casting sand. The hollow part of the mold is what we hope to look like after casting. Then heat the aluminum material to its melting point, so the aluminum becomes a liquid, and then pour the metal liquid into the sand mold and wait for it to cool down. At this time, open the mold and you can see a formed aluminum alloy rim. As for forging the aluminum ring, it is also necessary to make a mold first. The difference is that this mold must be made of sturdy steel instead of cast sand. Because during forging, the aluminum material does not reach the liquid state, but the temperature is raised until the aluminum material becomes soft. At this time, the material is put into the steel mold, and then continuously punched with great force, the aluminum material in the mold is completely It is extruded into the shape reserved by the mold, and the forged aluminum alloy rim is formed at this time. Regardless of whether it is a forged or cast product, it needs to be mechanically processed when it is taken out of the mold, such as removing burrs, trimming the appearance, baking paint, etc., to complete the finished rim. From the perspective of molds, forging molds are much more expensive than casting molds, and it is more difficult to open molds; from the perspective of construction methods, casting is easy to mass-produce, and forging is just a manufacturing process, not as simple as casting, so the price is also expensive. . During the forging process, the material undergoes continuous stamping. After forming, its structure will become very compact and solid, and can withstand high stress. That is to say, if the car runs over the road pothole, the cast aluminum ring may be deformed. However, the forged aluminum ring may be safe and sound. Secondly, because the forged aluminum ring has a compact structure and can withstand high stress, in terms of shape design, it can design a relatively lively thin spoke, and there is no need to worry about the bearing capacity is not strong enough. When the size is the same, it can also be lighter than the cast wheel frame, which can improve the "loaded mass/unloaded mass ratio" of the whole vehicle, and the handling performance of the car can be improved without other adjustments or changes. Good performance cars, without exception, all use forged aluminum rims.

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